Designing Effective Projects : Thinking Skills Frameworks
Bloom's Taxonomy: A New Look at an Old Standby

The Knowledge Dimension

Factual Knowledge—Basic information
Knowledge of terminology Vocabulary terms, mathematical symbols, musical notation, alphabet
Knowledge of specific details and elements Components of the Food Pyramid, names of parliamentary representatives, major battles of WWII
Conceptual Knowledge—The relationships among pieces of a larger structure that make them function together
Knowledge of classifications and categories Species of animals, different kinds of arguments, geological eras
Knowledge of principles and generalizations Types of conflict in literature, Newton’s Laws of Motion, principles of democracy
Knowledge of theories, models, and structures Theory of evolution, economic theories, DNA models
Procedural Knowledge—How to do something
Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms Procedure for solving quadratic equations, mixing colours for oil painting, serving a tennis ball
Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods Literary criticism, analysis of historical documents, mathematical problem-solving methods
Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures Methods appropriate for different kinds of experiments, statistical analysis procedures used for different situations, standards for different genres of writing
Metacognitive Knowledge—Knowledge of thinking in general and your thinking in particular
Strategic knowledge Ways of memorizing facts, reading comprehension strategies, methods of planning a website
Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge Different reading demands of textbooks and novels; thinking ahead when using an electronic database; differences between writing emails and writing business letters
Self-knowledge Need for a diagram or chart to understand complex processes, better comprehension in quiet environments, need to discuss ideas with someone before writing an essay

Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. New York: Longman.

Bloom, B.S., (Ed.). 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York: Longman.

Costa, A. L. (Ed.). (2000). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Marzano, R. J.  (2000). Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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