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An objects position describes where it is relative (compared) to a point of reference.
Positions along a line can be described as being positive or negative relative to a reference point on the line.
Distance is the length of the path travelled, and displacement is the net change of position. Both are measured in meters (m), or its derivatives (e.g. mm, cm, km). The symbol for distance is s, and for displacement s, or s, or s.
Displacement (change in position) is calculated as final (ending) position minus initial (starting) position. The starting position need not be zero.
Speed, velocity
Speed is the rate at which distance is covered. Velocity is the rate at which displacement is undergone. Both speed and velocity can be measured in meters per second (m/s, i.e. m.s1), or its derivatives (e.g. km/h). The symbol for speed is v, and for velocity v or v or v.
1. Average velocity
The average speed for a period of time is calculated as: distance travelled/ time passed
The average velocity for a period of time is calculated as: displacement undergone / time passed
The symbol for average speed is v, and for average velocity v or v or v.
2. Instantaneous velocity
Instantaneous speed or velocity is the actual speed or velocity at an instant (moment) in time.
Average speed or velocity involves an interval, and instantaneous speed or velocity involves an instant. The instantaneous velocity at the start of an interval is the intervals initial velocity (symbol = u). The instantaneous velocity at the end of an interval is the intervals final velocity (symbol = v).
Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. It is measured in meters per second, per second (m/s/s), i.e. meters per second squared (m/s2, or m.s2), or its derivatives (e.g. km/h/s). Acceleration in a straight line may involve an increase or a decrease in velocity over time. The symbol of acceleration is a or a or a.
Acceleration is calculated as change in velocity / time taken for this change to occur ((v / (t),
i.e. the difference between the intervals starting and ending velocities / duration of the interval (vu / (t)
For an object moving in the positive direction, speeding up is positive acceleration and slowing down is negative acceleration, because the final velocity initial velocity < 0 (is negative).
The Greek letter ( (delta) is used to represent change in.
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